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Fostering Critical Thinking and Media Literacy in the Next Generation: Developing European Youth's Skills for a Brighter Future

At a time when European societies have never been so pressured and polarised in the context of the post-pandemic, the Ukrainian crisis and climate change, it is important to highlight the key role of critital thinking amongst European youth in building a better future. As we all know, critical thinking is a vital skill that allows us to evaluate information, arguments, and evidence in a logical and unbiased manner. It enables us to make informed decisions, to solve problems effectively, and to communicate clearly and persuasively. In today's fast-paced and complex world, the ability to think critically is more important than ever. In this context, Fedactio's team participated in "Razor", a 10 days training course about "Promoting critical thinking through youth work" organised by Udruga Prizma in Zadar (Croatia). The program was co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.

In contemporary European society, there are many challenges to critical thinking. One of the most significant challenges is the abundance of misinformation and propaganda that circulates, especially online. With the proliferation of fake news, conspiracy theories, and biased sources, it can be difficult to discern what is true and what is not. This is especially problematic in an era of echo chambers and filter bubbles, where people are more likely to encounter only information that confirms their preexisting beliefs and biases. This can include fake news about scientific and political issues, as well as real news about conflicts, economic crises, and other important events. Given the importance of critical thinking in today's world, it is crucial that we are able to identify and evaluate the reliability of the information we receive, especially when it comes to issues that have significant impacts on society. Another challenge to critical thinking is the pressure to conform to certain beliefs and values. In today's highly polarised and divisive political climate, there is often a social and emotional cost to expressing dissenting opinions or asking tough questions. This can discourage people from engaging in critical thinking and suppress the free exchange of ideas that is essential for a healthy democracy.

What youth workers can do to overcome these challenges and promote critical thinking in European society ?

One solution is to educate ourselves and others about the principles and practices of critical thinking. This can involve seeking out diverse and reliable sources of information, learning how to identify and evaluate arguments and evidence, and developing the ability to think creatively and independently. By develping these skills and applying them in our daily lives, we can become more informed and engaged citizens, better able to navigate the complexities of the modern world.

Why critical thiking is so important as a tool of active citizenship ?

By using critical thinking skills, European Union citizens and future citizens can learn how to identify and evaluate false or misleading information, and to distinguish it from reliable sources. They can also learn how to question the validity of the information they receive and to express their thoughts and opinions in a well-reasoned and respectful manner. These skills are essential for navigating the complex and often confusing landscape of information in the digital age, and for participating meaningfully in public discourse and decision-making. Critical thinking is an important tool for active citizenship because it allows individuals to make informed decisions, to engage in effective problem-solving, and to communicate effectively with others. By evaluating information, arguments, and evidence in a logical and unbiased manner, people can form their own opinions and take action based on their beliefs and values. For example, critical thinking can help citizens to participate meaningfully in public discourse and decision-making. Whether it is voting in elections, advocating for a cause, or engaging with government officials, the ability to think critically allows individuals to make informed choices and to communicate their views in a clear and persuasive manner. In addition, critical thinking can help citizens to address social and political issues in their communities and beyond. By analysing problems and considering multiple perspectives, people can develop creative and effective solutions to challenges such as poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation.

Who participated ?

A total of 8 organizations participated in the "Razor" training project in Zadar, Croatia, which was led by Udruga Prizma. The other organizations included Fedactio from Belgium, DrOne from Croatia, EduEra from Slovakia, Asociación Promesas from Spain, Hang-Kép Kulturális Egyesület from Hungary, Ottovalante Sulcis from Italy, and Teatro Metaphora from Portugal. The host organization, Udruga Prizma, provided a supportive and inclusive environment for the representatives of the participating organizations to discuss their ideas and experiences on this topic and exchange views.

Which objectives were accomplished ?

The goal of the project was to improve the ability of partner organizations to promote critical thinking among young people through their youth work. This has been achieved through the following specific objectives:
- Enhancing the knowledge and skills of youth workers from partner organizations in the areas of critical thinking and conspiracy theories.
- Utilizing non-formal education methods to foster critical thinking in youth work.
- Sharing experiences and information among participating organizations on how to use non-formal education to promote critical thinking among young people.

Which topics have been covered ?

The training covered a range of sub-topics related to critical thinking, including contemporary issues, conspiracy theories, the impact of social media, and fallacies and biases. These topics provided valuable insights and skills for understanding and practicing critical thinking, such as how to verify the accuracy of an article or how fake news is created. The information shared and discussed during the training was of great importance for fostering a more rational and informed youth in the EU countries, which is a key European value. The training was interactive and focused on exchanging information and opinions, which helped participants to understand each other and identify fallacies and biases in practice. The training session on societal issues provided valuable insights and perspectives on a range of important topics. For example, participants learned about the importance of feminism and gender equality, as well as the challenges and obstacles that women and other marginalized groups face in society. They also explored the concept of freedom and how it relates to individual rights and responsibilities, as well as the role of religion in modern society and the ways in which it can both unite and divide people. In addition, the training addressed the sensitive and often controversial topics of racism and discrimination, and the ways in which these forms of oppression and injustice can manifest in different forms and contexts. Participants learned about the EU's commitment to promoting human rights and equality, and the ways in which these values can be upheld and defended. Finally, the training examined the impact of the conflict in Ukraine on European society and other countries, and the ways in which this crisis has shaped global politics and relations. Participants also learned about various conspiracy theories that have emerged in relation to this conflict and other societal issues, and the importance of critical thinking in evaluating the validity of such theories.

Which methods and tools have been used ?

Given the vast amount of information that people are exposed to today through various sources, and the importance of informed and educated citizens in democratic societies, specific sessions were focused on providing media literacy and critical thinking skills. These interactive sessions offered practical techniques and exercises for developing young people's critical thinking abilities and helping them identify cognitive biases and fallacies. The participants noted that when young people have the critical thinking skills to recognize the stereotypes, biases, and underlying motivations of those who produce political and media discourse, they can develop their own strategies for combating false information and misinformation.

How cultural awarness is important in european context ?

The training was held in a welcoming environment that encouraged social interaction between organizations from various EU countries. Each organization and participant contributed to the project in their own unique ways. Throughout the training, participants shared their cultural and personal views and presented their cultures, but despite these differences, everyone came together in the shared values of European identity and the EU's core values. It was very useful for all participants to meet and exchange practices with people from other cultures who work with youth, and this helped to strengthen organizational and personal connections for future collaboration on EU youth projects. Cultural awareness is important in European societies for several reasons. First, it helps individuals to understand and respect the diversity of cultures within and between countries in Europe. This includes acknowledging and valuing the different histories, traditions, languages, and values of various cultural groups, as well as recognizing the role that culture plays in shaping people's identities and experiences. Second, cultural awareness can foster greater tolerance, inclusivity, and social cohesion within European societies. By understanding and respecting the cultural differences of others, individuals can more easily recognize and appreciate the commonalities that they share, and work together to build more cohesive and harmonious communities. Third, cultural awareness can also facilitate better communication and understanding among people from different cultural backgrounds. By being sensitive to cultural differences and being open to learning about other cultures, individuals can more effectively communicate and interact with others, leading to more positive and productive relationships. Overall, cultural awareness is an important aspect of life in European societies, as it helps to promote mutual respect, understanding, and harmony among people from diverse backgrounds.

How did it boost our skills and employability as a youth worker ?

According to Burak, a volunteer who participated in the training, the information provided was "highly beneficial and it is anticipated that it will be put to good use in their voluntary work with Fedactio and in their future job. Meetings were held to initiate projects related to this pressing topic, and it was reported that there was a significant improvement in the way of thinking and looking at things. It is also noted that this type of project is beneficial for every individual and it is believed that everyone should have the opportunity to receive information about critical thinking in order to develop themselves first as an individual and then as a citizen of the European society. The training also served as a platform for participants to exchange ideas and practices with other youth workers from various European countries, providing a broader perspective and new insights into the difficulties and opportunities faced by youth workers in different settings. This cultural exchange was considered as an invaluable component of the training, as it offered the opportunity to learn from the diverse experiences of peers and establish meaningful connections with colleagues from different cultural backgrounds. Overall, the European training course on critical thinking was deemed as a highly beneficial experience that aided in enhancing skills and developing professional network of youth workers. It is recommended for other youth workers who seek to improve their critical thinking abilities and build connections with fellow professionals.

Conclusion and recommendations

Young people often face marginalization and lack of voice. By designating 2022 as the European Year of Youth, the EU has recognized the important role that young people play in society and the sacrifices they have made during the pandemic. The EU should take action to support their well-being and development, by promoting the meaningful participation of young people in all aspects of public life, and involving civil society organizations to support and empower young people, especially in disadvantaged communities. Additionally, education and awareness campaigns that inspire young people to believe in their power to make a difference, can help to create a brighter future for young people and society as a whole. To achieve these goal, it is of utmost importance that civil society organizations and the European Union prioritize the fostering of critical thinking. It's a powerful tool that equips youth with the ability to evaluate information and arguments objectively, make informed decisions and take active and responsible roles in society. Moreover, fostering critical thinking also means empowering young people to identify and challenge any form of marginalization, discrimination, or misinformation they may encounter in their daily lives. This is especially important in today's digital era, where the abundance of information and misinformation can make it challenging to distinguish truth from lies.

In short, by promoting critical thinking the EU will not only help to achieve its core values and goals. but will also empower young people to become active and responsible citizens who can drive positive change within their communities.

Interview with Henri Goldman about the importance of living together in peace

In commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, Fedactio and IDP interviewed "Politique" Editor-in-chief Henri Goldman, who talks about his family's experiences in Auschwitz during World War II.

Click here for the full video

Hello, Mr. Goldman! Could you introduce yourself in a few words and tell us a little bit about the tragedy that has affected your family? 

I was born here (Brussels) in 1947. So, I was born after all this. I don't know of the whole story we are going to talk about except what I have been told. But I lived it quite intensely through complicated family situations. I have to go back a generation. My parents are Polish Jews, born to families that have been there forever. They come from two cities, both about 50-80 km from Warsaw. At that time, there were about 3 million Jews in Poland. Between the two wars the Jews faced two types of difficulties. Firstly, socio-economic misery because the country was going through a crisis. We are after the crisis of '29, in a country that is not very prosperous. And then there's a tradition of anti-Semitism that becomes really unbearable with the rise of Polish nationalism which organizes boycotts: "Don't buy from the Jews." As the situation is difficult, they send children abroad. My parents, who don't know each other yet, come to Belgium as economic migrants, but also to flee anti-Semitism. Then comes the war. You know about Nazism and its racial laws, that Jews are persecuted in Germany. In the spring of 1942, the so-called Final Solution came into effect. There is one too many people on earth; we must not only discriminate against them, beat them, imprison them, but we must exterminate them. A decree of the occupier orders all Jews to show up and introduce themselves to the Dossins barracks in Mechelen to... go to Germany in a labour camp, although they are not really told why. What is important is that it only concerns foreign Jews at the time, so the occupier is going to get some kind of ambiguous collaboration with the Belgian Jews by telling them "you risk nothing at all, but you must help us". As in the Netherlands and France, national Jewish associations were set up. The arrest of my father arrived rather late, I do not know the details, he will be deported in February '44. As for my mother, she was deported in January '44, almost at the end of the war. When in 1942 the decision to deport foreign Jews was taken, she immediately contracted a white marriage to become Belgian. This is a procedure that many migrants used to have security of residence. Once she became Belgian, she joined the Resistance, and it was not until October 1943 that the deportation was to include Belgian Jews as well. She then went underground and was arrested by denunciation four months later. They both ended up in the Auschwitz camp where the train from Mechelen arrived. My father will be deported with his wife and the youngest of his three children and they arrive at the so-called ramp in Birkenau, the terminus station. There, people are sorted as they arrive; those who can still work as slaves enter the camp, and those who are considered useless immediately go to the gas chamber. That's what happened with my father's wife and their youngest child. The other two children were in hiding with Belgian families during this time. When my mother returned to the camp, she was a little woman, she was not even 1.5m tall, but she was vigorous. I learned a few years before her death that she had arrived pregnant at the Auschwitz camp, that she had given birth there, and with friends who worked in the infirmary they euthanized this little girl who was in full health to prevent her from being subjected to the medical experiments of Dr. Mengele, a war criminal. My father was later transferred to the Dachau camp. In a way it was fortunate because it was a pure labour camp, without gas chambers. He was liberated by the Americans, while my mother stayed all the way to the Auschwitz camp and a few days before the Soviet troops arrived began what was called the death marches. At that time there were about 100,000 people left in the Auschwitz camp and the Nazis took them with them in their retreat. It was in January in the middle of winter, it was freezing and this caravan of poor people came up to Germany. It took several months for them to run into French or American people who repatriated them. My parents met after the war. I was fortunate to have an extraordinarily alive mother, for whom life went on as did the fight against fascism. She pushed me to get involved in life and made me, I hope, a balanced and rather optimistic man.

Perhaps a brief word about who Henri Goldman is today, about your work and your commitments? 

This context has always made me a politically and socially committed person. Because of this family history, the hard core of my commitment revolves around the rejection of racism. More than that, there is also the recognition of cultural diversity. I am very happy to live in Brussels, which is a city where even today the majority of people are either foreigners or of foreign origin. It is an extraordinary richness not to have a culture of reference. And it is no coincidence that out of the 695 local councils that we have elected, there is not a single one from the far right. This is unique in the European landscape. When you look at what is happening in Flanders, France, the Netherlands, Germany, England, Italy and Spain, you see the emergence of mass parties everywhere. I think it's thanks to the "cosmopolitan" identity of Brussels that we don't have that. It shows that more cultural diversity leads to more democracy and openness. Besides that, I have a degree in architecture, but I've done six jobs in my life, around music, journalism, writing, page layout... (Mr. Goldman is currently editor-in-chief of the magazine "Politique".)

This Monday, 27 January, we commemorated the victims of the Holocaust with this year's focus on the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz camp. Who do you think is responsible for what happened to the Jewish people? Is it solely the fault of the Nazi regime or is there a more collective responsibility?

There is a collective responsibility that is historical, and then there are much more specific political responsibilities. Jews are the only non-Christian minority that has existed for a long-time all-over Europe, from Portugal to Russia, from England to Bulgaria. And it is on the Jews that the need to express a difference has focused. For a long time Jews were locked into a very specific economic function. If Jews became usurers, it was because they were not allowed to own land at a time when society was living off the land. By forbidding them to own land, they were forced to have small commercial functions. And then when a bourgeoisie developed in Western Europe, they were pushed eastward. They lived through pogroms, professional prohibitions, numerus clausus at the university when they have started to be able to study, etc. Structurally in European society there is a need for a permanent scapegoat, and at a time when we have no Arabs, no blacks yet, it falls on the Jews. Now there are much more conjunctural events that have plunged Europe into war. The advent of Nazism is not unique, we see the arrival of autocratic nationalist regimes in many places. The question of why genocide took such a prominent place in this war is something very difficult to explain and understand. It doesn't make sense. It makes sense for a criminal authoritarian regime to turn an entire population into slaves, but it does not make sense to decide to liquidate them industrially. Other countries have experienced genocides, such as the Armenian genocide or the Tutsi genocide, which are the two other major genocides that have been recorded. It was done in a planned manner, but not in an industrial manner, as was the case with the Jews. That's what's quite unique. How can a people that is considered at the time to be one of the most the people of Goethe, Schiller, Karl Marx, Freud, Einstein, etc.... How can a people that is one of the most evolved in Europe at a certain point forget its culture to make this? It is not the least civilized people who are capable of the most barbaric crimes.

This year many leaders from the Muslim community participated in the Auschwitz commemorations. Do you think that dialogue between different groups can be a remedy against radical ideologies?

Muslims have been widely accused of being the vectors of a new anti-Semitism. It is important to show that this is not true and that they empathize with the suffering of the Jews. There are also fine initiatives in the other direction, such as the iftars and exhibitions organised by the Jewish Museum in Brussels, which are an extraordinary moment of sharing. There are fruitful elements. It is important to note that Islamophobia and anti-Semitism are developing at the same time, and we must combat them together.

Today we can see that hate speech is on the rise in European societies. Why do you think there is so much hate in today's society? 

We're coming out of a period called the glorious thirty years (1945-1975). An exceptional period for Europe... even if it coincides with the golden age of colonialism. It is a period of growth, there is no unemployment, wages are rising steadily, public services are improving, pensions are also improving, the pie of the economy is growing so much that everyone, both bosses and workers, is earning more. And then all this will stop from the '75's onwards. For ten more years, we will pretend that everything is going well, that the situation will improve, and then we realise that it is no longer the case. Unemployment increases again, the social balance of power deteriorates and little by little people say "I am not sure that my children will live better than me. What can be done? To whom?" And then the old nationalism resurfaces and says it's other people's fault. We have to take care of our poor but we can't do it because all the poor people in the world are coming to invade us. Nationalism rises and revolves around refusing the other, the foreigner. The prosperity of capitalist societies is at a standstill. We realize that it no longer works, that we are no longer able to ensure a regular increase in the middle classes. There are new middle classes emerging in China or India, but the middle classes in Europe have collapsed. And on this basis, a discourse of exclusion has developed. The liberal economy no longer works and the left has not managed to impose another form of solidarity, so the extreme right is taking advantage of it. It is based on this old xenophobic background that exists in all societies where there is a very powerful national history.

Polarisation of society is very common today in our western societies, including in the countries of the European Union, and in the United States, which are said to be great democracies. In your opinion, is this a sign that democracy is in danger?

What we call polarization is an effect of the breakdown of solidarity. In order for it to take hold, you have to designate an otherness, and it always falls on populations of foreign origin, or in the United States on minorities. To say that black Americans or Hispanics are of foreign origin, yes, a very long time ago. But then all Americans are of foreign origin! It's all just a construct. In Europe this discourse has taken on new proportions with the new waves of migration.

Unfortunately we are still witnessing persecutions in 2020. All over the world people are worried about their ethnic, cultural, political, sexual and other backgrounds... Having made this diagnosis, what are the solutions envisaged? What is missing to ensure the respect of fundamental human rights? Are we condemned to see history repeat itself?

I think we are relatively doomed to give up the idea that history is linear and that it will always move towards more progress. This is what we have been discovering for the past few years, and the ecological crisis is not helping. The spiral of consumption and waste will make the Earth unviable. Human societies are going through a difficult time. If populists are getting stronger everywhere, it's because a scapegoat has been appointed. They say "eigen volk eerst", "our people first" and the others they could die. Éric Zemmour, who was asked in a French TV programme "what do you feel when young people die in the Mediterranean", has just said "I don't care at all, they took their risk. I'd rather they die than my own children". We are at that point when we don't really see how we're going to get out of it anymore. On the other hand, there is a lot of hope coming from the youth movements, the whole mobilization for the climate for example. It's a step forward... I think we need a profound cultural change to consider first of all that intangible goods, tenderness, love... are more valuable than material things. That said, we need at least enough food, clothing and shelter. I don't rely so much on the political world to initiate change, but more on the associative world. How do you convince dominant, powerful people to give up their privileges? It's difficult to convince them. In general, people who have privileges don't abandon them of their own free will. It is often necessary for less privileged people to snatch them away. That's how the whole history of human emancipation works. If certain African peoples had not fought for their independence, they would not have had it. If women had not fought for more equality, and it's not over, nothing would have changed, it would still be men who would decide everything. And if the workers hadn't fought for social rights, it wouldn't have been the capitalists who would have given them like that. We have to accept that society is an space of conflicts, that there are social, economic and cultural struggles. The dominated groups must take their destiny into their own hands. They must obviously do so in a way that does not lead to a reversal of domination. The history of human emancipation is not linear. There have been times when we moved forward and times when we moved backward.

What place do you give to intercultural dialogue in the resolution of the problems we discussed?

For me, the very existence of a multicultural city prevents a nationalist conception of things and forces one to be a little less self-centered. I have to be able to understand that this is important for a person who has another origin. That doesn't mean that they should remain locked in what they have received. But that this is their starting point and that if I want to make this person my equal, I must accept that this person's cultural baggage is as valuable as mine. The society I really dream of is a society where no one has to choose between being faithful to one's own baggage and making society all together.

Speaking of dream society. We were commemorating Martin Luther King’s Day on 20 January, what are your wishes, your dreams perhaps more precisely, for future generations? 

We have an incredible wealth that it is up to us to bring to life. It will evolve over time. No one knows for how long we will remain Turkish, Moroccan or Jewish. After how many generations it disappears or not. Then we get married to each other too, things happen. It is by remaining open that we can assume our destiny as the most cosmopolitan city in Europe according to all the statistics, and that we can be a small island of resistance to the rise of identity nationalism. This is what I can perhaps hope for the future.

Fedactio Says No to Racism!

On Sunday 24 March, Fedactio took part to the national demonstration against racism. The march mobilized more than 4000 people and dozens of organizations. 

All together, they walked for a world without racism, without discrimination. Racism is a daily reality. We cannot minimize or deny what constitutes a breeding ground in which racism keeps prospering. That is why we need to keep talking about this issue. Start the conversation. Do not tacitly dismiss racism. Let your opinion be heard! 
In addition, the demonstration was also an opportunity to pay tribute to the victims of the recent attacks in Christchurch, New Zealand. Unfortunately, that was not an isolated case. Other overwhelming incidents are also expressions of racism, which is deeply rooted in our society. 
There is an urgent need to take effective action against racism and discrimination at all levels. We are all convinced that, as civil society, we must contribute to a fairer and more inclusive society where everyone feels at home.

On the occasion of World Poetry Day, Fedactio celebrates rhymes and verses, unexpected tools of social cohesion

Today, on the occasion of World Poetry Day, Fedactio wishes to highlight this universal art, studied from an early age, which combines both the delicacy of a language and the dramas of our society. 

In ancient Greece, the Greeks already considered the poet as a creator, capable of developing the language while suggesting strong emotions through verses. In Italy, in the Middle Ages, it was Dante Alighieri, the poet who was nicknamed "the father of the Italian language" who left his mark forever on world literature thanks to his Divine Comedy. Since then, poetry has occupied an important place in our society.

UNESCO launched World Poetry Day on 21 March 1999. The purpose of this day is to pay tribute to the benefits of poetry at different levels, namely linguistics, cohesion and interculturality, creativity and education. Poetry knows how to highlight the beauty of a language as well as the value and weight of words. Therefore, she combines power and delicacy and speaks to everyone. Indeed, no need for a universal language to feel the emotion of poetry. In addition, it makes it possible to preserve certain languages that are now endangered. In other words, it saves part of the world's cultural and linguistic heritage.

In Belgium, la Maison Internationale de la Poésie Arthur Haulot, a Brussels NGO that works in collaboration with the Federation Wallonia-Brussels, the Belgian Development Cooperation Department and UNESCO, is committed to the dissemination of poetry. The NGO wishes to illustrate and make poetry known to as many people as possible through her Journal des Poètes. This periodical appears every three months and contains several categories, including the one entitled "Voix Nouvelles", which promotes poets still unknown to the general public. If the promotion of new talent is important, education is also one of their priorities. The "Poètes en classe" action aims to raise awareness of poetry among teenagers and teachers in Brussels and Walloon schools. Students have the opportunity to talk with one or more poets and to learn about poetry and all its components.

Poetry not only helps to preserve the world's cultural and linguistic heritage, but also promotes international cohesion and interculturality. The fact that simple or engaged poetry is a universal art facilitates dialogue between cultures and thus diversity and openness of mind. Léopold Sédar Senghor is a perfect example. This Senegalese poet was the first President of the Republic of Senegal, the first African to take up residence at the Académie française and a disciple of Aimé Césaire and his famous concept of negritude. Léopold Sédar Senghor's engaged poetry cannot be dissociated from his political ideals, which wanted to restore Africa's splendour after long and hard years of colonization. Engaged poetry has a virtue: it has no borders. It can bring people together, work for peace, open minds and highlight the progress made by humanity.  

The educational and cultural approach of World Poetry Day goes hand in hand with the values promoted by Fedactio. Indeed, several of our platforms such as "Education" and "Social Cohesion and Dialogue" carry out actions that are perfectly in line with this approach. Fedactio is convinced that we can dream and shape a better world and that poetry is a way to achieve this. If this last one is so successful, it is because it exists in various forms. Whether written or oral, it is through this plurality that it transmits the creativity of individuals. Poetry, like other arts, allows human beings to share their creativity, their own perception of the world, but also their deepest feelings. Poets brighten our reality with their imagination, let us pay tribute to them.